Saturday, May 23, 2020

Difference between EU Preschools and American Preschools

EU preschools pay more attention to the student’s health and development, while the domestic schools focus on skills training. According to the physiological and psychological characteristics of children, each country emphasizes that the preschool stage is a key period for their physical growth and development, the primary task of preschool is to cultivate a healthy body for the children. In November 20, 1989, the United Nations unanimously adopted the Convention on the rights of the Children, which involves four aspects of children s rights including survival, development, protection and the criterion to have right to participate in social life within the scope of world . On September 29th,1990, in New York, many countries leaders gathered together to discuss the physical and mental health problems related to the protection of children, and put forward a series of effective principles. In order to ensure the physical and mental health of children, various countries take different measures. For examples: In France, it is stressed that preschool institutions should maximizing the protection of children s health in every activity. In UK, it provides free medical care for children in preschool. In China, the burden of preschool is very heavy, except for the formal lessons, they have to take extracurricular classes. Due to fierce competition, the parent of the children always are afraid that their children will lose in the starting line, at the meantime, they ignore theShow MoreRelatedEssay about The Effects of Poverty on the Lives of Children2737 Words   |  11 Pagesindividuals earning capacity; this essay examines the likelihood that an individual will earn enough to keep his or her family out of poverty, given the individuals educational attainment, age, and race. The reasons for the large difference between the child and adult poverty rates are explored, using a decomposition of the poverty population to show how demographic characteristics such as higher fertility rates among poor families and the higher prevalence of single-parentRead MoreNespresso Co. Analysis15084 Words   |  61 Pagesthere are some forms of arts that are only kept in the mountains, like Yodeling (a type of singing) or accordion (music instrument) or even alphorn (a music instrument which is more popular but only in some areas). The melodies of folk music vary between regions. In particular, the Alpine Folk culture is characterized by very expressive dances. Some small musical ensembles are practiced in mountains area, usually in the French speaking part of Switzerland. Moreover, there is the Visual Art: in theRead MoreReed Supermarket Case32354 Words   |  130 Pagesidentifying international competitive advantage 1.8 Value shop and the service value chain 1.9 Information business and the virtual value chain 1.10 Summary Case studies 1.1 Build-A-Bear Workshop (BBW): how to manage the global comeback? 1.2 Arcor: a Latin American confectionery player is globalizing its business 1.3 Video case study: Nivea Questions for discussion References 3 5 5 6 6 7 17 19 21 25 33 36 38 39 45 47 47 47 49 49 50 50 57 61 65 65 68 69 70 70 2 Initiation of internationalization LearningRead MoreNgo Pratham7599 Words   |  31 Pageshave annual budgets in the hundreds of millions or billions of dollars.. Major sources of NGO funding are membership dues, the sale of goods and services, grants from international institutions or national governments, and private donations. Several EU-grants provide funds accessible to NGOs. Pratham – An NGO Pratham is the largest nongovernmental organization working to provide quality education to the underprivileged children of India. Pratham was established in 1994 to provide education toRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesShortcuts in Judging Others 170 †¢ Specific Applications of Shortcuts in Organizations 173 The Link Between Perception and Individual Decision Making 174 Decision Making in Organizations 175 The Rational Model, Bounded Rationality, and Intuition 175 †¢ Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making 177 Influences on Decision Making: Individual Differences and Organizational Constraints 184 Individual Differences 184 †¢ Organizational Constraints 186 What About Ethics in Decision Making? 187 Three Ethical DecisionRead MoreCost Accounting134556 Words   |  539 Pagesinclude a share of the rent, food, utilities, and other related costs. Costs tha t would differ with the addition of another person are the differential costs. These differential costs might include food. It would be necessary to negotiate an agreement between you and the other person considering all factors. For example, should you split the total costs or charge only the differential costs of the additional person. Businesses are often faced with similar decisions on finding the appropriate cost base

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

An Influence of the Great Depression - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 552 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/05/16 Category History Essay Level High school Topics: Great Depression Essay Did you like this example? To what extent did New Deal legislation represent a change in American government? This question is particularly important because it shows how the effects and the preventative masseurs of the past directly influence the way things work today. How the Social Security Act, the development of the State Welfare Programs, and Industrial Pensions and Welfare Capitalism stabilized the economy, protect the individual US citizen, and prevent another economic disaster from occurring. The Great Depression was the worst economic disaster in the history of the industrialized world, lasting 10 years from 1929 to 1939. Beginning with Black Thursday, October 24th, 1929 when 16 million shares of stock were quickly sold by panicking investors which caused the stock market to crash on the following Tuesday. In just 2 months stockholders lost over $40 Billion Dollars. The depression was caused by several fundamental structural weaknesses in the U.S. economy. Banks operated without guarantees to their customers, so when things went wrong people would naturally panic, few regulations were placed on banks who lent money to those who speculated recklessly in stocks, agricultural prices were low leaving farmers unable to begin any kind of recovery. By 1933 over 4,000 banks had failed totaling 9,000 by the end of the 1930s. People across all classes stopped purchasing products because they feared further economic woes. This led to reduced product production, reduction of workers (people lost their jobs and could no longer pay for products that were purchased through installment plans leading to repossession) and unemployment rose over 25% leading to even less spending, worsening the economic situation. The Great Depression led to the New Deal in the US, but the effects reached across the world. In Germany, the Great Depression was a direct cause of the rise of extremism that led to World War II. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "An Influence of the Great Depression" essay for you Create order The Social Security Act of 1935 was created to produce a security web for people working or not working who were injured and cant work or with disabilities and or old age that make working not possible. This web would protect these individuals by categorizing there need base so that proper pay compensation could be given so they could be able to support themselves financially. It established the social insurance programs of social security and unemployment compensation as well as the public assistance programs of Aid to Dependent Children (later changed to Aid to Families with Dependent Children, or AFDC), Old Age Assistance, and Aid to the Blind. All of these provided direct relief, payments given without work that is normally payed (Rose, pg. 1) The creation of this Act can be seen to be a direct influence of the Great Depression and because this act produces security for many people it can be seen to be a preventative measure towards another economic crises by eliminating the panic that individual people get during mass layoffs, so instead of money flow stopping which contributed greatly to the severity of the Great Depression, it continues to flow, eliminating repositions of products purchase through instalments and products continue to be purchase while the individual has enough time to find a new job. Work Cited Rose, Nancy E. Work Relief in the 1930s and the Origins of the Social Security Act. Social Service Review, vol. 63, no. 1, Mar. 1989, pp. 63â€Å"91., doi:10.1086/603679. Quadagno, Jill S. Welfare Capitalism and the Social Security Act of 1935. American Sociological Review, vol. 49, no. 5, Oct. 1984, p. 632., doi:10.2307/2095421.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Birth of Pleasure by Carol Gilligan Free Essays

Carol Gilligan Birth of Pleasure can be considered a research in social science. She has hypothesised certain theories regarding men and women behaviour. One of her main hypothesis is that women are different from men in various ways; she argues that female have a higher level of morality that cements the relation among sexes. We will write a custom essay sample on The Birth of Pleasure by Carol Gilligan or any similar topic only for you Order Now At times she seems a feminist who is playing for female audience. She overcomes the limitation as the book flows. For example she starts the human life story from a child perspective that is â€Å"under father’s authority† (Pg 5). She mentions that in patriarchy society there are different ways of dealing with boys and girl. For example boys are forced to learn and be disciplined at a young age compared to female. Female are forced to learn from age 13 and above at puberty. The reason for such approach; she argues is the utility of women. In a patriarchal society, women become important when they become fertile; before fertility they have no existence. However the problem arises when a child becomes adult and he has to unlearn the older behaviour. Sometimes it is hard to undo the learned behaviour; deep inside sometimes adults feel guilty, if they do not follow the behaviour they have been taught in childhood. Gilligan does not argue in straight forward manner about the theme patriarchy in teenagers life, but the book overall covers the relationship between children and parents as pathologies. For example she mentions that boys have two choices; either becomes good boy or bad boy; either by following the parent’s instructions or negating them to create their own social identities. The problem with such approach is that boys cannot form their own identities with reference to their true self. For girls the process began at much later stage when they approach the puberty. She insists that girls are forced by mothers to follow their footsteps and behave according to the established norms of the society. This situation gives rise to conflict and breaking of the bond that exists between parents and children. She insists that love is based on democracy; while the patriarchy is based on hierarchy of men and women. The result of such hierarchy is patriarchy; where individuals find pain in love rather than pleasure due to the inherent conflict (in these relations). She suggests that it is possible to find pleasure with in the social norms, if couples overcome their limited roles and try to unlearn the behaviour childhood behaviour. Gilligan has taken ideas from various sources, but she is able to develop her own ideas by studying life of children and couples including her own experience of life spiced with various Western myths and legends; such as Psyche and Cupid. She successfully weaves different pieces together to form one narrative immersing reader in interesting stories with one common theme. The positive effect of this style is that reader finds new interpretations about the stories and myths he is familiar with. Gilligan sometimes seems to speak in a mystical language, when she declares that the yoke of Western love stories is made of tragedy because of the presence of patriarchy; where male justify their authority by trampling true feelings of women. Her idea of democracy of love seems un-restricted by social norms; such idea seems far from practical. All societies need to survive; the hierarchy allows a society to survive which may look cruel at time but this is how civilization are made from. Reference Gilligan, Carol (2002). The Birth of Pleasure. Random House. How to cite The Birth of Pleasure by Carol Gilligan, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Analysis of Iinternational Marketplace †

Question: What is it that an exporter looks for in an international marketplace? Is it always the same or does it vary with market analysis? Answer: International Business For many exporters globally, there are key factors to consider while checking for export marketplaces for their products. Many a times, the export business may outwardly look simple, however there can be serious challenges in setting up a successfully export operations. In many parts of the world, exporters find different cultures, administration taxation schemes and these challenges can complicate easy set up for his her business overseas (In Barry, 2013).The export markets have great potentials for lucrative revenue generation and this one key reason many business crave for a pie of the international market place (Rugman, 2017). However, before venturing into the marketplace, there are several questions that exporters over time have considered as a basis of getting into the exporters arena. It is important for an exporter to know beforehand whether his/her commodity of export is adapted to meet the international standards for that particular market. The issue of regulations that are in place is also another consideration. For the exporter, they need to choose the best product for the market entry as that would either spell doom or victory in the industry. The local cultures and languages for where an exporter identifies the market need to be considered on how it would affect export of goods and services (Zuckerman, 2002). There is need to question on how customers will be reached whether directly or through distributors/ agents, the issue of demand versus supply plus after sale services, type of promotion and intellectual property protection. The ultimate consideration will be the revenue target from the venture (Taft, 2005). All this questions will enable an exporter decide appropriate market place to venture in after a critical analysis of business viability. References Barry, D., U.S. Commercial Service,. (2013). Exporters!: The wit and wisdom of small businesspeople who sell globally. Rugman, A. M., Collinson, S., Narula, R. (2017). International business. Harlow, United Kingdom: Pearson Education. Taft, R. A. (2005). Growing your business globally. Mason, Ohio: Thomson. Zuckerman, A. (2002). Operating globally. Oxford: Capstone Pub.

Wednesday, March 25, 2020

Among the early leadership theories focused on the Essays

Among the early leadership theories focused on the Essays Among the early leadership theories focused on the leader (leadership trait theories), Miramar Group employs leaders who possessing several traits of Drive (Ability to work under pressure), Honesty and integrity(Strong sense of integrity), Job-relevant knowledge(Diploma or above in Purchasing and Supply Chain Management or related discipline, Minimum 3 years' relevant working experience in hospitality industry, Product knowledge in hospitality industry, Fluent in written and spoken English Cantonese) and Extraversion(Strong interpersonal and communication skills) with reference to the job requirement of Sales Manager and Procurement Officer. Among the early leadership theories focused on how the leader interacted with his or her group members (leadership behavior theories), Miramar Group labeled employee oriented from the early leadership studies of University of Michigan Studies. According to the Miramar's belief : Our team is the backbone of our business and the foundation of our success. The Group regards employees as its most precious asset. The Group strives to provide a continuous learning environment and opportunities to its employees at all levels to help them grow and excel in performance that took a personal interest in the needs of the followers. At Miramar, every team leader and manager takes on the role to nurture new team members, to build up their expertise and to encourage their personal growth. As well as the leader emphasize on interpersonal relationships, therefore developing the Miramar Management Development Program by offering a one-on-one coaching sessions from senior executives to ensure that indi viduals maximize their fullest potential. Subsequent to continued deployment of resources towards employee training and development programs, the Group has been awarded "Manpower Developer" by the Employees Retraining Board every year since 2011. Miramar Group labeled democratic style from the early leadership studies of University of Iowa Studies as well. According to the mission of the group : We provide a work environment that encourages innovation, hard work and an entrepreneurial spirit among our employees that mean the leader who involved employees in decision making. Also, with reference to the work culture of the group and Terms of Reference of the Remuneration Committee, we can see it delegating authority (a culture of taking ownership and empowerment, never says "no" and always offer alternative solutions) (The Committee is authorized by the Board to seek any information it requires from any employee of the Company in order to perform its duties) and encouraging participation (a philosophy that encourages creativity and innovation, a spirit of unity, understanding and co-operation). In addition, twenty-first-century leaders do face some important leadership issues. In this section, we look at these issues that include managing power, cross-cultural leadership. Most effective leaders rely on several different forms of power to affect the behavior and performance of their followers. For example, the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer (Mr. Lee Ka Shing) of Miramar Group, employs different types of power in managing his followers. He has been in charge of corporate policy formulation and schematization, then gives orders to the subordinates(legitimate power), remunerate employees by offering competitive benefits and compensation packages and continuous professional development programmes(reward power), and disciplines those who commit infractions(coercive power). As an effective leader, he also strives to have expert power(based on his expertise and knowledge of promoting the Group's business development and enhancing its competitiveness and status in the industry) and referent power(based on his being admired) to influence his followers. Furthermore, The Group is the "Equal Opportunity Employer"; it values dedication and respect, and work hard to instill a sense of unity, ownership and professionalism in all of its employees in supporting the achievement of the Group's Mission, Vision and Business Strategies. It is the policy of the Group to remunerate employees in a fair and equitable manner. The Group develops a performance-driven culture and adopts Total Rewards Management for talents attraction, employee recognition and retention. The Group regularly reviews its Remuneration and Benefits Program on the basis of the relevant laws, and keeps in line with market practice, market conditions and market levels of remuneration.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Free Online Research Papers Throughout the duration of this course we have touched on many different topics and disorders that all have been truly unique and very interesting. However, the chapter I found the most interesting was Anxiety Disorders and particularly Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Therefore, I will present a brief history of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder such as, its origin and how this disorder has affected individuals over generations. I will be touching on all aspects of this disorder ranging from how this disorder can be acquired in many different ways, forms to its multiple effects on individuals, and how this affects their behaviors and life style. I will also discuss treatments and some specific examples of PTSD. Forever, humans have been put under stress and in stressful situations, which have the ability to aggravate or make one so distressed, they will actually demonstrate mental and physical symptoms from this encounter with stress. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder works under similar principles, PTSD can be defined as a severe psychological reaction, lasting one month and involving intense feeling of fear, helplessness, or horror, to intensely traumatic events, events involving actual or threatened death or serious injury to oneself or others (Alloy, Riskino, Manos, 2005, p.157). In other words PTSD is the, â€Å"hypermnesis linked to the trauma which produces various emotional disturbances that result in a state of increased hypersensitivity towards environmental stimuli â€Å" (Tapia, Clarys, Isingrini El-Hage, 2007).Insinuating after this intense traumatic experience or episode one is going to experience an anxiety to stimuli that reminds the victim of this initial experience. PTSD can also be diagnosed in two different forms in the DSM-IV-TR, which are Acute and Chronic PTSD. The different forms are recognized by the severity of an individual’s disorder; Acute lasting just a month or so then gradually fading away. Then there is the Chronic form that is much more server and last for years, even decades, and in some cases a lifetime (Alloy et al., 2005, p.157). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder has not always been defined or distinguished by DSM as it was portrayed above. Not until the third edition of the DSM published in 1980 was PTSD placed as a subcategory of anxiety disorders, then again it was republished with the fourth edition in 1994 defining it as a new stress response category (Beall, 1997). The true origin or time when the term PTSD was defined was in 1908s yet for many years before this there have been terms which were used to describe the symptoms of this disorder which was commonly associated with war fatigue. These are terms such as â€Å"shell shocked†, â€Å"combat fatigue† and â€Å"combat neurosis†, were terms, which mainly arose during World War I (WW1) to describe some soldier’s depression, anxiety, nightmares and panic attacks after returning from battle. This followed through WWII where the same symptoms were observed. A study on 1,089 Dutch veterans 50 years after the WWII showed that 50% o f these people were still suffering from PTSD in some way and only 4% showed no symptoms at all. The next major war, the Vietnam War, saw much of the same but on a larger scale due to many factors. (Alloy et al., 2005, p.158). At one time war fatigue was one of the only causes of PTSD; however, today we now know that it is one of the major causes and there are many other stressors, situations, and events which can cause one to endure the same symptoms of PTSD; both acute and chronic. For many generations Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder was mainly related to war fatigue. Yet it is now known that virtually any trauma that can be considered life threatening or that severe, compromises the emotional well-being of an individual, or causes intense fear is a cause of PTSD. In other terms PTSD can derive from any stress, fear, situation or event, which can cause injury, death, emotional damage or even intense fear. So this can happen in many different situations; for example, a plane crash, a natural disaster (tornados, earthquakes, etc.), an assault, a car crash or even rape. It all depends what each individual feels will compromise their well being to what situations can actually be a trigger for the start of PTSD. A perfect example of this was after two large earthquakes in Iceland 100 children between the ages of 10-15 were chosen from the hardest hit areas to be examined and questioned for symptoms of PTSD. The results were quite interesting where 59% an extreme fear of injury during the quake 49% fear of death and 30% felt completely helpless. This Natural disaster triggered the symptoms of PTSD among these children and left an imprinting fear or anxiety of earthquakes with them (Bodvarsdottir, Elkit Gudmundsdottir, 2007). The effects and symptoms of PTSD can also be portrayed through each individual in a variety of ways, shapes and forms. According to the â€Å"National Institute of Mental Health† there are three main categories which symptoms can be grouped under. The first category is re-experiencing symptoms, which can be anything from flashbacks (reliving the experience), nightmares, and frightening or even suicidal thoughts. These types of symptoms can be triggered from anything that reminds the victim of the traumatic experience. Types of triggers could be a place, thought, word, object or almost anything that reminds the individual of the traumatic event. The second category is avoidance symptoms, which include avoiding certain places, objects, and people. The victim might feel socially numb and have strong guilt and depression. One may have loss of interest in once enjoyable activities and they may have trouble remembering the actual traumatic even which triggered the PTSD. The last cat egory is hyperarousal symptoms such as feeling on edge, anxious, being easily startled, having sudden outburst, and having difficulty sleeping (NIMH, 2009). All of these symptoms interfere with the victim’s ability to function normally or to the extent they did before the triggering event. This may be anything from ones sleeping pattern being disoriented, insomnia, lack of energy or motivation and even fear or loss of social activity. In many cases the individual may lose the ability to function properly or at all in social situation, which can lead to a social phobia. A particularly good example of this is when Vietnam Veterans returned form war. Instead of being greeted with praise and welcomed they were spat on and called baby killers due to the political view at that current time. Along with most likely having some form of PTSD these men were also repressed by society forcing down upon them, â€Å"social stigmatization and isolation† (Nietlisbach Maercker, 2009). In many cases this caused victims to become violent and distant from love ones, this is a possibility for any case of PTSD not just war veterans. However there are treatments that can be used to counter act PTSD. Treatments for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder include a variety of techniques that are designed to help the victim through a recovery process. These techniques include forms of psychotherapy where the victims and encouraged to form relationships with family or friends. The individual should begin relationship building as well as emotional and cognitive connections with the trauma. The victim should also recognize the divergence between pre and post trauma values, meaning how their values have changed. Learning to modify one’s since of self establishes a meaning for the trauma being experienced. Also, it is important to reestablish appropriate self-management and social skills so they will be able to live a normal life (Marshall Dobson, 1996). These types of therapies along with constant reestablishment into society and their family along with reassuring yourself confidence is very key in through PTSD. There are medications, which are also used such as paroxetine and sertralin e, which are both anti-depressants. These are used to treat depression, fear, worry, anger and feeling numb inside. In many cases this is paired with psychotherapy and the various techniques discussed above to help the victim through the effects of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (NIHM, 2006). In conclusion Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a very concerning disorder, which is triggered by a traumatic event that induces the fear of death, injury or emotional damage. This has been seen through the ages yet became very prevalent in the first and second World Wars were men came home with bouts of battle fatigue or being â€Å"shell socked.† This was also seen all throughout Vietnam and on a larger scale due to the political views during that era. PTSD was then defined in the DSM-III in 1980 as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. We now know, that PTSD can be caused not only from war but almost any traumatic event in an individual life, which triggers the immense fear of death, injury or emotional damage. This affects individuals in a variety of ways through symptoms such as re-experiencing the traumatic event, avoidance and hyperarousal. In some case impairing ones ability to function normally in social situations. However, there are treatments that are designed to target the specific symptoms and affects to rebuild the victim’s confidence, relationships, and life style to what it was to previously to the traumatic event. References (2006). National Institute of Mental Health. Retrieved from Alloy, L., Riskino, J., Manos, M. (2005). Abnormal psychology current perspectives 9th edition (pgs. 157-158) New York McGraw Hill. Beall, L. (1997). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Bibliographic Essay. Retrieved from Bodvarsodottir, I., Elkit, A., Gudmundsdottir, D.B. (2007). Post-traumatic Stress Reactions in Children after two large Earthquakes in Iceland. Nordic Psychology 58(2), Jul, 2006. pp. 91-107 , doi 10.1027/1901-2276.58.2.9 Marshall, R., Dobson, M. (1996). A gereral model for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in war veterans. Psychotherapy Vol 32(3), Fal, 1995. pp. 389-396 , doi 10.1037/0033- 3204.32.3.389 Nietlisbanch, G., Maercker, A. (2009). Effects of social exclusion in trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Trauma 1(4), Dec, 2009. pp. 323-331 , doi 10.1037/a0017832 Tapia, G., Clarys, D., Isingrini, M., El-Hage, W. (2007). Memory and Emotion In Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Canadian psychology 48(2), May, 2007. p. 106-119, doi 10.1037/cp2007012 Research Papers on Post Traumatic Stress DisorderThree Concepts of PsychodynamicPersonal Experience with Teen PregnancyArguments for Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS)Definition of Export QuotasHip-Hop is ArtBringing Democracy to AfricaMind TravelThe Masque of the Red Death Room meaningsRelationship between Media Coverage and Social andAnalysis Of A Cosmetics Advertisement

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Employee Engagement and Employee Voice (Contemporary HRM Research) Essay

Employee Engagement and Employee Voice (Contemporary HRM Research) - Essay Example The role of employee voice in employee issues therefore very important in the operation of human resource management units since it has a significant influence on employee performance, employee views and also regulates the relationship between employers and employees. This paper examines the concept of 'employee voice'. It attempts to identify what that concept actually is and how it has evolved over the past 60 years The research then goes on to examine the position of employee voice after the Second World War and how it has evolved to this day. It will examine key concepts and ideas that define the phenomenon. Also, the research discusses the role of employee engagement in organisations. This is done from two perspectives. The first is the position of employers and the facades within which they deal with employee demands. The second is how the organization and the human resource department specifically, deals with employee voice. Finally, the paper will focus on the role of employe e relationships and how it affects the strategic position of organisations. It will be done by examining the business case of employee relations and how it is integrated into the communication plan of organisations. Employee Voice â€Å"For working purpose, we define voice as the expression of ideas, information, opinions and concerns as well as silence, such as withholding† (Greenberg & Edwards, 2009 p4). This means that voice refers to communication in the wider sense. There is no clearcut definition of employee voice. However, using this preamble, we can say that voice refers to the kind of feedback or message that employees give or seek to give to their employers in the workplace. From another perspective, this also means that where employees refuse to communicate or make any demands, it can also be viewed as some kind of a voice. This implies that communication from employees is essential for the success of organisations around the world. Employee voice therefore takes a different connotation all together. Its scope is wider than just making demands and asking management or the owners of a business to come up with certain actions or activities. â€Å"Employee voice is the term increasingly used to cover a whole variety of processes and structures which enables and sometimes empowers employees directly or indirectly to contribute to decision-making in the firm† (Armstrong, 2008 p200). This shows that employee voice is a kind of involvement of employees in the